David J. Hark

with broad background in media:
Internet, Web, Photography, Digital Imaging


Web Accessibility (A11y) and Section 508

"The wonderful thing about standards
is that there are so many of them to choose from".
Rear Admiral Grace Hopper

Admiral Grace Hopper, USN, with three other programmers at the control panel of the UNIVAC I computer.
Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, USN,
with other programmers at UNIVAC 1.

Software bug  photo



About the ATbar

Participate in Global Accessibility Awareness Day

- MAY 19 2016 -

This page is divided into the following major sections:


Who are you?

What Do I Call you?

Among people with functional limitations, the term "disability" has become the most widely accepted term. It is an accurate, succinct description, which encompasses most people with physical disabilities.

An example of political correctness is the changing terminology used to described handicapped people. In the past the term "crippled" was perfectly acceptable and not considered offensive. At some point, somebody decided "crippled" was degrading and the preferred term changed to "handicapped". This, too, was eventually deemed offensive and "disabled" became the preferred term. Today, "disabled" is now considered degrading and "differently abled" and "physically challenged" are now the politically correct terms.


Gaming and Accessibility

Section 508


Microsoft web page with note that accessibility features are not available.


Note about accessibility: This test version of the Microsoft Download
Center does not include accessibility features we normally provide
in our final releases, including support for browser page readers
and the ability to change fonts.


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Review of Section 508 Standards for Web Accessibility

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Other Resources


Old woodcut image from the middle ages of men attacking an old castle. The words, Oy Gevalt! Such a day!, appear at the top of the image.

Users found the site easy and fun to use!

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Writing for the Web

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the WCAG Theme Song By David MacDonald © 2005-2008

WCAG 2.0 Theme Song This is the theme song for the new WCAG 2.0 which is a W3C recommendation. Accessibility consultant David MacDonald wrote it during a Face to Face WCAG meeting in Los Angeles. He did the instruments, programming, vocals and mixing in his home studio.

Standards and Organizations

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) QR code image for the page "Finding Your WAI"

  1. W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)     W3C
  2. The W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative Guidelines
  3. ISO/IEC 40500:2012  Information technology -- W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
  4. W3C Web content accessibility guidelines become ISO/IEC International Standard
  5. Interactive WCAG 2.0
    1. vigetlabs/interactive-wcag
  6. Finding Your WAI ("way") to New Web Accessibility Resources
  7. WCAG 2 at a Glance
  8. W3C Cheatsheet: Accessibility: WCAG2 at a Glance
  9. WCAG 2 - Don't Panic
  10. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0     Checklist of Checkpoints
  11. Section 508 Web Standards and WCAG Priority 1 Checkpoints A Side-by-side Comparison
  12. What is the difference between the WAI guidelines and the Section 508 standards for Web accessibility?
  13. Mobile Accessibility: How WCAG 2.0 and Other W3C/WAI Guidelines Apply to Mobile
  14. Web Accessibility Tutorials - Guidance on how to create websites that meet WCAG

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Section 508

Section 508 Refresh Timing Confirmed
David Capozzi, Executive Director of the U.S. Access Board, confirmed the Board is working to publish the final rule updating Section 508 standards by October of this year (2016).

ANPRM for Updating ICT Guidelines and Standards (ADAAG, 255, 508)

Draft Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Standards and Guidelines

  1. The U.S. Access Board
  2. Update on the Board's Refresh of the Section 508 Standards and Telecommunications Act Accessibility Guidelines
  3. Draft Updated Standards and Guidelines (2011)
  4. Update of the 508 Standards and the Telecommunications Act Guidelines
  5. Workforce Investment Act of 1998 SEC. 508. ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.
  6. Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications (1194.22)    [June 21, 2001]
  7. The Sixteen Section 508 1194.22 Requirements & Instructions  [David's Page]
  8. Section 508 demo and test page home
  9. Section 508 to be updated
  10. WebAIM Section 508 Checklist
  11. Section 508: The Road to Accessibility
  12. Department of Justice Section 508 Home Page
  13. Accessibility Forum Website      Test bed
  14. Department of Veterans Affairs
    1. Accessible Electronic Information Technology - Section 508
    2. Section 508 Training & Awareness
  15. Section 508 Web Standards and WCAG Priority 1 Checkpoints A Side-by-side Comparison
  16. JimThatcher.com Web Accessibility for Section 508 
  17. Section 508 Self-Evaluation
  18. Webmaster's Section 508 Discussion List    [Department of Veterans Affairs ]
  19. Accessibility Forum's    Section 508 demo and test page home  
  20. Links to Federal Agency Public URL's on Section508 Policy, Guidance, and Best Practices
  21. Section 508 and The NASA Web Portal
  22. Goddard Section 508 Best Practices
    1. Living Examples
    2. Section 508 Web Accessibility Checklist

Section 508 Checklist

  1. Section 508.gov
    1. How do I Evaluate My Software Applications or Website for Accessibility?
  2. WebAIM: Web Accessibility In Mind
    1. WebAIM Section 508 Checklist
  3. US Department of Veterans Affairs
    1. Section 508 Checklist for §1194.22 Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications   (PDF form)
  4. University of Wisconsin-Platteville
    1. Full WAI & 508 Checklist
    2. Simple Version Checklist
  5. United States Patent and Trademark Office
    1. Web Content Checklist for Section 508 Compliance (PDF form)
  6. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
    1. Web-based Internet Information and Applications Section 508 Checklist (PDF form)
  7. US Environmental Protection Agency
    1. 508 Compliance Toolkit
  8. U.S. General Services Agency
    1. GSA 508 Tutorials, Guidance, Checklists

508 vs WAI

  1. Section 508 Web Standards & WCAG Priority 1 Checkpoints: A Side-by-side Comparison
  2. Section 508 and WCAG Sidebar
  3. If a web site is WCAG A-Compliant and its author wants to be Section 508 compliant as well, these are the five standards he must address additionally.
    These are paragraphs 1194.22 (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p).
  4. Mapping Section 508 to WCAG 2.0   [Wayne Dick and Tom Jewett]
  5. Mapping Section 508 to WCAG 2.0 Level A
  6. Web checklist IBM Web Accessibility Checklist, W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and US Section 508

Americans with Disabilities Act

  1. ADA Home Page - ada.gov
  2. Public Accommodations Proposed Regs Further Delayed
    • "the Department of Justice (DOJ) will issue no proposed regulations for public accommodations websites until least April 2016"
  3. ADA and the Internet: Where Things Stand (April 22, 2016)
  4. Justice Department targets websites, mobile apps, and POS devices    (April 28 2014 )
  5. DOJ Delays Web Accessibility Regulations
  6. More Delay for DOJ Web Regs - Does it Matter?
  7. Should Netflix Be Accessible to the Deaf?
  8. Department of Justice Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM)
    1. Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability; Accessibility of Web Information and Services of State and Local Government Entities and Public Accommodations
    2. Federal Register Version -- Web Information and Services
  9. Justice Department targets websites, mobile apps, and POS devices
  10. A Guide to Disability Rights Laws
  11. DisabilityInfo.gov
  12. Department of Justice ADA Technical Assistance CD-ROM     order
  13. The Americans With Disabilities Act   [ the text ]
  14. Applying the ADA to the Internet: A Web Accessibility Standard
  15. U.S. Department of Justice ADA Title II Highlights
  16. Americans with Disabilities Act Document Center
  17. ADA celebrates 12th birthday with civic compliance
  18. A Progress Report on Fulfilling America's Promise to Americans with Disabilities
  19. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): 1990 - 2002
  20. Should Web-only businesses be required to be disabled-accessible?  [CNN.com Nov 7, 2002]

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

  1. IDEA - Building The Legacy of IDEA 2004

Air Carriers Access Act (ACAA)

  1. Not Ready for the New ACAA Regulations?

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Organizations and Companies

100 Killer Web Accessibility Resources: Blogs, Forums and Tutorials

Accessibility DC



Accessible Culture


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Coalition of Organizations for Accessible Technology

Fujitsu Web Accessibility Guidelines




JISC TechDis Accessibility Essentials

  1. Making Electronic Documents More Readable
  2. Writing Accessible Electronic Documents with Microsoft® Word  
  3. Creating Accessible Presentations
  4. Making the Most of PDFs



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The Ohio State University

Trace Research and Development Center - Trace Center

University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign

Accessibility 101

WebAIM: Web Accessibility in Mind


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Technologies and Issues

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)
(n. A solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment, as in an opera.)

CMS: Content Management System



Design / Usability

Semantic Markup

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Assistive Technology

Detecting Assistive Technology



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JavaScript and Dynamic HTML Accessibility


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Web 2


Web sites that already meet WCAG or MWBP are already well on the way to meeting the other.

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Accessibility Companies / Testing Sevices

Trusted Tester Program

Vision Issues

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Intellectual / Cognitive Disabilities

Screen Readers

YouTube Captions and Subtitles

Add multiple captions or subtitle tracks to your videos! About captions and subtitles feature http://www.youtube.com/t/ca... English script can be found here. http://sites.google.com/sit...

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Audio / Podcasts / Video

Books/Reports/Magazines / On-Line

Social Accessibility

Social Media

Accessibility Info / Training, On-Line

  1. Webucator
    1. Accessibility Tutorial: Learn Accessibility
    2. Accessibility Tutorial: An Introduction to Section 508
  2. University of Southampton Free Online Course on Digital Accessibility
  3. Google: Web Fundamentals: Accessibility
  4. Web Accessibility by Google (Free Course by Udacity)
  5. Google: Introduction to Web Accessibility (2013)
    1. Resources
  6. HIKE - Introduction to accessibility concepts for the Web in 20 min.
  7. Building Accessible Websites  HTML version of Joe Clark's book
  8. Training Manuals and Tutorials  (High Tech Center Training Unit)
    1. Server Statistics 
  9. CATEA Web Accessibility Course
    1. This course replaces the former ITTATC web accessibility course.
  10. Access E-Learning     [ Georgia Tech Research on Accessible Distance Education ]
  11. Introduction to Web Accessibility   WebAIM
  12. Section 508 Training
  13. NWS   NOAA   Internet/Intranet Accessibility Tutorial
  14. Web Accessibility 101    [ University of Wisconsin-Madison ]
  15. Structure and Style for the Web  [pdf]
  16. Art of ALT    captioned video example
  17. Training Manuals and Tutorials   (The High Tech Center Training Unit)

Accessibility Blogs / Forums On-Line

  1. 456 Berea Street
  2. A11y Buzz
  3. Accessible Culture
  4. Accessibility Wins
  5. The Paciello Group Blog
  6. WebAIM Blog
  7. WebAxe Blog and Podcast
  8. Yahoo! Accessibility Blog
  9. Accessibility Matters - Deque Blog
  10. the Accessibility Forum
  11. iheni   Henny Swan's blog
  12. Marco's accessibility blog
  13. Web Accessibility Blogs
  14. The Tink Tank  Léonie Watson
  15. AccessifyForum
  16. WebAIM Accessibility Forums
  17. w3c-wai-ig@w3.org Mail Archives
  18. mozilla . dev . accessibility
  19. Trace   "sec508" Thread Index
  20. Blogging Against Disablism

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Accessibility Around the World




European Union

United Nations



Hong Kong





New Zeland

United States


Overview of State Accessibility Laws, Policies, Standards and Other Resources Available On-line



United Kingdom

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Examples and pages for testing

Other Examples

MIT OpenCourseWare
6.931 Development of Inventions and Creative Ideas
Is the MIT OpenCourseWare site compliant with W3C standards and accessibility requirements?
Vision Australia
American Council of the Blind
A Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired
American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.
Good Text/Background Color Combinations
Poor Text/Background Color Combinations
Language Log: The main job of the girl brain
Their table of raw and adjusted results is here.
Scrupulously avoiding sigma [check the table]  effect size
House Committee on Agriculture
digNubia: Exploring the Science of Archaeology
Switch to the HTML version of Dignubia
Welcome to SFGOV - Official San Francisco
Web Accessibility    ReadSpeaker
Welcome to SFGOV in Mini Opera Simulator
Program Schedule SFGTV & SFGTV2
BART has created special web pages with fewer images, less text and simple formatting that can be displayed by most mobile web browsers. Your device might show things a little differently, but click here see a working example.
Welcome to the Town of Richmond Hill Website
Visit the Town of Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada, the municipal government that is a little north, a little nicer. Town Hall, Mayor and Council, Municipal Services, Business, Parks & Recreation, Department and Affiliate pages.
Mayor and Council
Mayor & Members of Council (2006-2010). Image is an image map allowing access to individual pages.
Fairfax County, VA
Current Site
New Site Design 
Color Vision Simulator Examples
Vischeck's color vision model allows you to simulate how the world looks to people with various sorts of color deficiency.
How do babies see the world? Note: "Quick baby facts!" on the right side. Accessible? swimmers All the images have the same alt="Baby looking at toys"
Notice the camouflage netting
Is this a "Quality Text Alternative"
http://www.jim-crace.com/     screen capture
title: Untitled Document, frames, "link" for The Pest House (2007) is not a link
Accessibility Design and Features
This site is designed with accessible features and considerations to give all visitors a similar browsing experience. (Society for Technical Communication, STC, Washington DC chapter)
TV Converter Box Coupon Program Website - Privacy Policy & Accessibility   screen capture
Links are not underlined and are a light blue, close to text in tone.
Accessible Web Design Examples
These examples have been created to help directly identify common 508 issues. Code is provided for advanced users.
Section 508 - NOAA's National Weather Service
Check the link color with CSS disabled
Where do you want to be?
Linking directly to an image doesn't allow for alternative text.
Aquatic Arts - Learn by Example
In order to illustrate the best practices for accessible web page design, we have created a website that contains both Inaccessible & Accessible pages. These examples should provide solutions to the most common accessibility issues currently facing web content managers.
Accessible University (AU) mock site
The Accessible University (AU) mock site was developed by AccessIT as a tool for demonstrating web accessibility principles.  Index of Accessible University Pages       Non-Frames Version      Frames Version
Photoshop Pattern Stamp Tool
Transcript available for narrated flash demonstration
Meet the Professionals Shawn Henry
In English with Japanese subtitles.  English Transcript    Download for iPod
How to Change Text Size or Colors
The WAI Web site is designed to let you change the text size, text and background colors, and other display settings through standard browser settings.
Introduction to the Screen Reader
"Introduction to the Screen Reader" with Neal Ewers of the Trace Research Center is a short 6 minute video demonstrating how screen readers assist people who are blind navigate the web, access the electronic page, and more.
About Eogogics
[How to say Eogogics - please have speakers on]
Animated GIFs to test for Flickering and Photosensitive Epilepsy    Flicker Rate Test for GIF images
Animated gif images
Why the U.S. Has Fallen Behind in Internet Speed and Affordability
(WARNING: Flicker!)  Your Lucky Day? 
NCAM Rich Media Accessibility > Flicker Demo
[flash images that flicker at 4Hz, 7Hz, 20Hz, and 59Hz. ]
YTMND - 3.141592653589793...
And with the CSS disabled, we see....
NASA Goddard: Section 508 Best Practices
Living Examples
What Is Web 2.0
Print       Listen

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